But it is a matter of some debate whether he should be read as a virtue ethicist White And like Augustine, Adams takes that perfect good to be God.
Oxford University Press, — Cambridge University Press, pp. But, while Plato and Aristotle can be great inspirations as far as virtue ethics is concerned, neither, on the face of it, are attractive sources of insight where politics is concerned. It should go without saying that the virtuous are mindful of the consequences of possible actions.
If it is the circumstances in which the agent acts—say that she is very poor when she sees someone drop a full purse or that she is in deep grief when someone visits seeking help—then indeed it is particularly admirable of her to restore the purse or give the help when it is hard for her to do so.
However, even though the systematising of moral thought can travel a long way from our starting point, according to the exemplarist it never reaches a stage where reference to exemplars is replaced by the recognition of something more fundamental.
De Gruyter Verlag, pp. To possess such a disposition fully is to possess full or perfect virtue, which is rare, and there are a number of ways of falling short of this ideal Athanassoulis Swanton, Christine,Virtue Ethics: Possessing a virtue is a matter of degree.
Other virtue ethicists wish to retain the concept of right action but note that in the current philosophical discussion a number of distinct qualities march under that banner.
There are also disagreements about the virtues within a given society. As we observed in section 2, a virtue ethical account need not attempt to reduce all other normative concepts to virtues and vices. In its particular versions, for deontology there is the question of how to justify its claims that certain moral rules are the correct ones, Rosalinda hursthouse virtue theory and for utilitarianism of how to justify its claim that all that really matters morally are consequences for happiness or well-being.
After Hume's Justice, which offered an account of social justice in mainly Aristotelian and Wittgensteinian terms, and which, though Hursthouse did not seek to justify prevailing liberal democratic institutionsdemonstrated that a modern practical philosophy conceptually centred upon virtue in its distinct sense when applied to human beings and our communities, can accommodate certain human or individual rights.
But if what makes it hard is an imperfection in her character—the temptation to keep what is not hers, or a callous indifference to the suffering of others—then it is not. For Plato and the Stoics, virtue is both necessary and sufficient for eudaimonia Annas Aristotle makes a number of specific remarks about phronesis that are the subject of much scholarly debate, but the related modern concept is best understood by thinking of what the virtuous morally mature adult has that nice children, including nice adolescents, lack.
There are now a number of careful studies of the cardinal virtues and capital vices Pieper ; Taylor ; Curzer ; Timpe and Boyd Hursthouse turns her philosophical attention, and ours, to the kinds of reasons actually sought for and given by human beings in the explanation of human behaviour: Finally, one of the more productive developments of virtue ethics has come through the study of particular virtues and vices.
Either way, such heroic acts can hardly be regarded as egoistic. A significant aspect of this mindset is the wholehearted acceptance of a distinctive range of considerations as reasons for action. Another way in which the favored approach can fail is for it to turn out that no distribution of character traits will promote the flourishing of all human beings.
Some virtue ethicists respond to the adequacy objection by rejecting the assumption that virtue ethics ought to be in the business of providing an account of right action in the first place.
Whether one needs other concepts and, if so, how many, is still a matter of debate among virtue ethicists, as is the question of whether virtue ethics even ought to be offering an account of right action. Swanton, Christine,Virtue Ethics: Eudaimonia is discussed in connection with eudaimonist versions of virtue ethics in the next.
It persisted as the dominant approach in Western moral philosophy until at least the Enlightenment, suffered a momentary eclipse during the nineteenth century, but re-emerged in Anglo-American philosophy in the late s.
Another problem arguably shared by all three approaches is ethat of being self-effacing. If I think I am happy then I am—it is not something I can be wrong about barring advanced cases of self-deception.
She shows in marvelous detail that this answer agrees with common sense in a variety of cases. One exciting thing about research in this area is its engagement with other academic disciplines, including psychology, educational theory, and theology see Cline ; and Snow DePaul, Michael and Linda Zagzebski eds.
We already have a passable idea of which traits are virtues and what they involve. Snow, Nancy,Virtue as Social Intelligence: The wise do not see things in the same way as the nice adolescents who, with their under-developed virtues, still tend to see the personally disadvantageous nature of a certain action as competing in importance with its honesty or benevolence or justice.
Alas, I have been able only to skim the surface of the many interesting issues discussed in this excellent book.
There are at least three different ways to address this challenge. She disapproves of, dislikes, deplores dishonesty, is not amused by certain tales of chicanery, despises or pities those who succeed through deception rather than thinking they have been clever, is unsurprised, or pleased as appropriate when honesty triumphs, is shocked or distressed when those near and dear to her do what is dishonest and so on.
It may be that the virtue ethics of Hutcheson and Hume can be naturally extended into a modern political philosophy Hursthouse —91; Slote At the very least, an agent-based approach must be committed to explaining what one should do by reference to the motivational and dispositional states of agents.ROSALIND HURSTHOUSE Virtue Theory and Abortion The sort of ethical theory derived from Aristotle, variously described as virtue ethics, virtue-based ethics, or neo-Aristotelianism, is becoming.
Virtue Theory and Abortion, in which Hursthouse outlined the structure of a new version of Aristotelian virtue ethics, defended it against possible objections, and applied it to the issue of abortion. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site.
1 Rosalind Hursthouse – Virtue Theory and Abortion The following is an excerpt of Rosalind Hursthouse’s “Virtue Theory and Abortion,” originally published in in Volume. ROSALIND HURSTHOUSE Virtue Theory and Abortion The sort of ethical theory derived from Aristotle, variously described as virtue ethics, virtue-based ethics, or neo-Aristotelianism, is becoming.
Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics. It may, initially, be identified as the one that emphasizes the virtues, or moral character, in contrast to the approach that emphasizes duties or rules (deontology) or that emphasizes the consequences of actions (consequentialism).Download